The CDC and the Canada Public Health Agency further explain the use of the International Certificate of Vaccination (Certificados Internacionales de Vacunacion / Certificats Internationaux de Vaccination) card for yellow fever and cholera. These vaccines are usually available only from state travel clinics and not from private clinics.
On Fri, 10/3/08, Panama, ACS
Subject: PANAMA-TRAVELERS MUST BE VACCINATED AGAINST YELLOW FEVER
Date: Friday, October 3, 2008, 2:49 PM
UNOFFICIAL TRANSLATION - TRAVELERS MUST BE VACCINATED AGAINST YELLOW FEVER
Attention hours for those who need the vaccine are Monday through Friday, from 7:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. and the cost is five dollars. Passengers in transit and coming from countries that are not included in the list of 45 countries with risk of yellow fever transmission, according the World Health Organization's (WHO) classification, are not required to have the international vaccination card against this disease.
For this vaccine to be effective it must be applied 10 days before the stipulated travel date and the dose duration (efficient protective titers) is 10 years.
The health measure announced by the Ministry of Health, of requesting as of next November 1, that all national or foreign travelers that enter Panama from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission be vaccinated, seeks to prevent the resurgence of the disease in the country.
It is necessary to remember that the last cases of sylvan yellow fever in Panama were registered in 1974 and the Ministry of Health tries to comply with what is established in the 2005 International Health Regulation (RSI), in preventing the spreading of epidemics and improving cooperation among countries with that same objective. Its adaptation is oriented towards current world challenges in view of the reappearance of infectious diseases, of the growing risk of international spreading and of the appearance of new health alerts with worldwide repercussions.
According to the WHO, 111 countries (including Panama) require that persons who enter their territory from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission be vaccinated.
Panama has an established epidemiological monitoring of yellow fever, proper attention of suspect cases, continuous education to the health team on disease prevention and control, information, education and communication with the community of prevention and control measures of yellow fever, a viral, transmissible, preventable and acute infectious disease, of rapid evolution and variable seriousness that is transmitted through a mosquito bite. Next is a list of countries with risk of yellow fever transmission, according to the World Health Organization (WHO):
- American Continent
- French Guiana
- Trinidad and Tobago
- African Continent
- Burkina Faso
- Republic of Congo
- Sao Tome and Principe
- Central African Republic
- Sierra Leone
- Côte D'Ivoire
- Equatorial Guinea
- United Republic of Tanzania
- Guinea Bissau
The list provided by the WHO of countries that request vaccination against yellow fever from international travelers that come from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission.
(From the Panamanian Ministry of Health)
CDC Health Information for International Travel 2008
Yellow Fever Vaccine Requirements and Information on Malaria Risk and Prophylaxis, by Country
|Requirements1||CDC recommendations2,4||Area of risk||Chloroquine resistance||Recommended prophylaxis|
|Panama||If traveling from an endemic zone||For all travelers >9 months of age traveling to the provinces of Darien, Kunayala (San Blas) and Panama (see Map 4-16), excluding the Canal Zone, Panama City and the San Blas Islands.||Risk exists in rural areas of Bocas Del Toro, Darién, San Blas provinces and San Blas Islands. No risk in Panama City or in the former Canal Zone.||Confirmed in Darién and San Blas provinces, including San Blas islands.||Chloroquine in Bocas Del Toro. Atovaquone/ proguanil; doxycycline; or mefloquine in Darién and San Blas.|
1Yellow fever vaccine entry requirements are necessary for travelers to comply with in order to enter the country. In general, these are in place to prevent importation and transmission of yellow fever virus. Countries requiring yellow fever vaccination for entry adhere to the regulations put forth by WHO as stated in the International Health Regulations. Some countries require vaccination for travelers coming from an endemic zone. “Traveling from an endemic zone” is defi ned as transit through an endemic zone in the previous 6 days. Country requirements are subject to change at any time; therefore, CDC encourages travelers to check with the appropriate embassy or consulate prior to departure.
2The information in the section on yellow fever vaccine recommendations is advice given by CDC to prevent yellow fever infections among travelers.
3Please note, the U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends avoiding vaccination of infants.
4Recommendations are subject to change at any time if disease conditions change; therefore, CDC encourages travelers to check for relevant travel notices on the website www.cdc.gov/travel prior to departure.
Note: Country requirements are subject to change at any time; therefore, CDC encourages travelers to check with the appropriate embassy or consulate prior to departure.
What are the Australian quarantine requirements for yellow fever vaccination?
See full text in http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/Publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-communic-factsheets-yellow.htm
The period of validity of the International Vaccination Certificate for yellow fever is 10 years, beginning 10 days after primary vaccination and immediately after re-vaccination. Only Yellow Fever Vaccination Centre clinics designated by PHAC can provide the International Certificate of Vaccination in Canada. A list of these centres can be obtained from PHAC's Travel Medicine Program Web site (http://www.travelhealth.gc.ca).
The decision to immunize against yellow fever will depend on the itinerary of the individual traveller and the specific requirements of the country to be visited (including stopovers). As well as being necessary for entry into certain countries, immunization against yellow fever is recommended for all travellers who are visiting or living in countries in Africa and South America where yellow fever infection is officially reported. It is also recommended for travel outside of urban areas in countries that do not officially report yellow fever but lie in the yellow fever endemic zones (see maps).
See full text in http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cig-gci/p03-10-eng.php