Sunday, October 05, 2008

Yellow Fever vaccination requirements (more)

Panama local airline COPA and the US consulate confirm the requirement for travellers entering Panama from one of the countries in the tropical zone considered by the World Health Organization as yellow fever countries.

The CDC and the Canada Public Health Agency further explain the use of the International Certificate of Vaccination (Certificados Internacionales de Vacunacion / Certificats Internationaux de Vaccination) card for yellow fever and cholera. These vaccines are usually available only from state travel clinics and not from private clinics.

About Us

Vaccination against yellow fever
Tuesday, September 30, 2008

On September 29, 2008, the Panamanian Foreign Minister announced a one-month moratorium on the effective date for the requirement that all persons entering Panama provide proof of vaccination against yellow fever. This requirement will now take effect as of November 1, 2008.

This requirement applies to all persons who wish to enter Panama from a country considered at-risk for transmitting yellow fever by the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as to Panamanian citizens or residents who travel to at-risk countries.

The Panamanian government has stated that it will require that persons be vaccinated against yellow fever at least 10 days prior to entering Panama, and 10 days before departing to at-risk countries.

Even if passengers only leave the airport or port for a few hours, they will be considered to have entered Panama.

Below is a list of the countries the IATA considers at-risk for transmission of yellow fever.

Thank you for you attention.

On Fri, 10/3/08, Panama, ACS wrote:
From: Panama, ACS
Date: Friday, October 3, 2008, 2:49 PM
September 30, 2008 - The Ministry of Health reminds Panamanian and foreign citizens that there are three places equipped and authorized for vaccination against yellow fever in the Republic of Panama, where an international vaccination card will also be provided. The centers are: the international vaccination office of Metropolitan Health Region, located at Los Ríos (reverted area), main street, on the side of the Institutional Protection System, building 237; office of International Maritime Health in the port of Cristóbal, Colón province; and the office for Regional Epidemiology Coordination in the district of David, Chiriquí province. (more)

Attention hours for those who need the vaccine are Monday through Friday, from 7:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. and the cost is five dollars. Passengers in transit and coming from countries that are not included in the list of 45 countries with risk of yellow fever transmission, according the World Health Organization's (WHO) classification, are not required to have the international vaccination card against this disease.

For this vaccine to be effective it must be applied 10 days before the stipulated travel date and the dose duration (efficient protective titers) is 10 years.

The health measure announced by the Ministry of Health, of requesting as of next November 1, that all national or foreign travelers that enter Panama from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission be vaccinated, seeks to prevent the resurgence of the disease in the country.

It is necessary to remember that the last cases of sylvan yellow fever in Panama were registered in 1974 and the Ministry of Health tries to comply with what is established in the 2005 International Health Regulation (RSI), in preventing the spreading of epidemics and improving cooperation among countries with that same objective. Its adaptation is oriented towards current world challenges in view of the reappearance of infectious diseases, of the growing risk of international spreading and of the appearance of new health alerts with worldwide repercussions.

According to the WHO, 111 countries (including Panama) require that persons who enter their territory from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission be vaccinated.

Panama has an established epidemiological monitoring of yellow fever, proper attention of suspect cases, continuous education to the health team on disease prevention and control, information, education and communication with the community of prevention and control measures of yellow fever, a viral, transmissible, preventable and acute infectious disease, of rapid evolution and variable seriousness that is transmitted through a mosquito bite. Next is a list of countries with risk of yellow fever transmission, according to the World Health Organization (WHO):

  • American Continent
    • Argentina
    • Bolivia
    • Brazil
    • Colombia
    • Ecuador
    • French Guiana
    • Guyana
    • Panama
    • Paraguay
    • Peru
    • Trinidad and Tobago
    • Suriname
    • Venezuela
  • African Continent
    • Angola
    • Liberia
    • Benin
    • Mali
    • Burkina Faso
    • Mauritania
    • Burundi
    • Niger
    • Cameroon
    • Nigeria
    • Congo
    • Rwanda
    • Republic of Congo
    • Sao Tome and Principe
    • Senegal
    • Central African Republic
    • Sierra Leone
    • Somalia
    • Sudan
    • Côte D'Ivoire
    • Togo
    • Equatorial Guinea
    • Uganda
    • United Republic of Tanzania
    • Ethiopia
    • Gabon
    • Gambia
    • Ghana
    • Guinea
    • Guinea Bissau

The list provided by the WHO of countries that request vaccination against yellow fever from international travelers that come from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission.

(From the Panamanian Ministry of Health)

CDC Health Information for International Travel 2008

Yellow Fever Vaccine Requirements and Information on Malaria Risk and Prophylaxis, by Country

Country Yellow Fever Malaria
Requirements1 CDC recommendations2,4 Area of risk Chloroquine resistance Recommended prophylaxis
Panama If traveling from an endemic zone For all travelers >9 months of age traveling to the provinces of Darien, Kunayala (San Blas) and Panama (see Map 4-16), excluding the Canal Zone, Panama City and the San Blas Islands. Risk exists in rural areas of Bocas Del Toro, Darién, San Blas provinces and San Blas Islands. No risk in Panama City or in the former Canal Zone. Confirmed in Darién and San Blas provinces, including San Blas islands. Chloroquine in Bocas Del Toro. Atovaquone/ proguanil; doxycycline; or mefloquine in Darién and San Blas.

1Yellow fever vaccine entry requirements are necessary for travelers to comply with in order to enter the country. In general, these are in place to prevent importation and transmission of yellow fever virus. Countries requiring yellow fever vaccination for entry adhere to the regulations put forth by WHO as stated in the International Health Regulations. Some countries require vaccination for travelers coming from an endemic zone. “Traveling from an endemic zone” is defi ned as transit through an endemic zone in the previous 6 days. Country requirements are subject to change at any time; therefore, CDC encourages travelers to check with the appropriate embassy or consulate prior to departure.

2The information in the section on yellow fever vaccine recommendations is advice given by CDC to prevent yellow fever infections among travelers.

3Please note, the U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends avoiding vaccination of infants.

4Recommendations are subject to change at any time if disease conditions change; therefore, CDC encourages travelers to check for relevant travel notices on the website prior to departure.

Note: Country requirements are subject to change at any time; therefore, CDC encourages travelers to check with the appropriate embassy or consulate prior to departure.

See full text in

What are the Australian quarantine requirements for yellow fever vaccination?

Yellow fever is a quarantinable disease in Australia. People who are one year of age or older must hold an international vaccination certificate if, within six days before arriving in Australia, they have stayed overnight or longer in a declared yellow fever infected country in Africa or South America (see Table 2). Travellers should seek medical advice on vaccination for their individual medical circumstances, particularly about the suitability of yellow fever vaccine for infants, pregnant women and those who are immuno-compromised.

See full text in

Yellow fever

Yellow fever is the only vaccine required as a condition of entry under the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations. A valid International Certificate of Vaccination, issued within the previous 10 years, is mandatory for entry into certain countries in Africa and South America. Other countries have requirements for proof of immunization from travellers who have passed through yellow fever endemic zones. Please refer to the maps in the Yellow Fever Vaccine chapter for more information.

The period of validity of the International Vaccination Certificate for yellow fever is 10 years, beginning 10 days after primary vaccination and immediately after re-vaccination. Only Yellow Fever Vaccination Centre clinics designated by PHAC can provide the International Certificate of Vaccination in Canada. A list of these centres can be obtained from PHAC's Travel Medicine Program Web site (

The decision to immunize against yellow fever will depend on the itinerary of the individual traveller and the specific requirements of the country to be visited (including stopovers). As well as being necessary for entry into certain countries, immunization against yellow fever is recommended for all travellers who are visiting or living in countries in Africa and South America where yellow fever infection is officially reported. It is also recommended for travel outside of urban areas in countries that do not officially report yellow fever but lie in the yellow fever endemic zones (see maps).

See full text in

No comments: